Windows rootkits, especially those operating in kernel space, are pieces of malware infamous for their near absolute power in the operating system. Usually deployed as motorists, such implants have high privileges in the system, allowing them to intercept and potentially tamper with core I/ O operations conducted by the underlying OS, like reading or writing to files or processing incoming and outgoing network packets. The capability to blend into the fabric of the operating system itself, much like security products do, is the quality that earns rootkits their notoriety for stealth and evasion.

Having said that, the successful deployment and executing of a rootkit ingredient in Windows has become a difficult task over the years. With Microsoft’s introduction of Driver Signature Enforcement, it has become harder( though not impossible) to load and run new code in kernel space. Even then, other mechanisms such as Kernel Patch Protection( also known as PatchGuard) make it hard to tamper with information systems, with every change in a core system arrangement potentially invoking the infamous Blue Screen of Death.

Consequently, the number of Windows rootkits in the wild has decreased dramatically, with the highest proportion of those still active often being leveraged in high profile APT assaults. One such instance came back our attention during an investigation last year, in which we uncovered a formerly unknown Windows rootkit and its underlying cluster of activity. We observed this rootkit and other tools by the threat actor behind it being used as part of a campaign we dubbed’ TunnelSnake ‘, conducted against several prominent organizations in Asia and Africa.

In this blog post we will focus on the following key findings that came up in our investigation 😛 TAGEND

A newly discovered rootkit that we dub’ Moriya’ exploited by an unknown actor to deploy passive backdoors on public facing servers, facilitating the creation of a covert C& C communication channel through which they can be silently controlled; The rootkit was found on networks “of the regions ” diplomatic organizations in Asia and Africa, saw on several instances dating back to October 2019 and May 2020, where the infection persisted in the targeted networks for several months after each deployment of the malware; We observed an additional victim in South Asia, where the threat actor deployed a broad-spectrum toolset for lateral motion together with the rootkit, including a tool that was formerly used by APT1. Based on the detection timestamps of that toolset, we assess that the attacker had a foothold in the network from as early as 2018; A couple of other tools that have significant code overlaps with Moriya were found as well. These contain a customer mode version of the malware and another driver-based utility used to defeat AV software.

We provided information about this functioning in our threat intelligence portal in August 2020. More details and analysis are available to clients of our private APT reporting service. For more details contact: intelreports @kaspersky. com.

What is the Moriya rootkit and how does it work?

Our investigation into the TunnelSnake campaign started from a fixed of alertings from our product on a detecting of a unique rootkit within the targeted networks. Based on string artefacts within the malware’s binaries, we named this rootkit Moriya. This tool is a passive backdoor which permits attackers to inspect all incoming traffic to the infected machine, filter out packets that are differentiated as designated for the malware and respond to them. This forms a covert channel over which attackers are able to issue shell commands and receive back their outputs.

The rootkit has two traits that make it particularly evasive. The packet inspection happens in kernel mode with the purpose of applying a Windows driver, letting attackers to plummet the packets of interest before they are processed by the network stack, thus ensuring they are not detected by security solutions. Secondly, the fact that the rootkit waits for incoming traffic rather than initiating a connection to a server itself, avoids the need to incorporate a C& C address in the malware’s binary or to maintain a steady C& C infrastructure. This hampers analysis and makes it difficult to trace the attacker’s footprints.

The figure below illustrates the structure of the rootkit’s components. They are comprised of a kernel mode driver and a user mode agent that deploys and oversight matters it. In the following sections we will break down each of these components and describe how they operate to achieve the goal of tapping into the target’s network communication and blending in its traffic.

Fig. 1. The architecture of the Moriya rootkit

User mode agent analysis

The user mode component of the Moriya rootkit has two purposes. One is to deploy the kernel mode component of the malware on the machine and the other is to leverage the covert communication channel created by it to read shell commands sent from the C& C server to the compromised machine and to respond to them. Since Moriya is a passive backdoor intended to be deployed on a server accessible from the internet, it contains no hardcoded C& C address and relies alone on the motorist to provide it with packets filtered from the machine’s overall incoming traffic.

The first order of business for the attacker when using Moriya is to gain persistence on the targeted computer. For this purpose, the user mode agent’s DLL contains an export function named Install, which is intended to create a service named ZzNetSvc with the description’ Network Service Manager’ and start it. In turn, the path to the user mode agent’s image is set to the registry key HKLM \ System \ CurrentControlSet \ Service \ ZzNetSvc \ Parameters \ ServiceDll so that it will be invoked from its ServiceMain export each time the service is initiated.

Next, after the service is started, the agent will attempt to load the rootkit’s driver into the system. Its binary is bundled as two driver images within the DLL’s resource section, corresponding to 32 – and 64 -bit architectures, while in reality only one of them is written to disk. In the cases we analyzed, the agent DLLs were compiled for 64 -bit systems, dropping a 64 -bit motorist to the drivers directory in the system path, under the name MoriyaStreamWatchmen.sys, hence the rootkit’s name.

Fig. 2. Code that writes the Moriya driver to disk

The agent employs a known technique whereby the VirtualBox driver( VBoxDrv.sys) is leveraged to bypass the Driver Signature Enforcement mechanism in Windows and load Moriya’s unsigned motorist. DSE is an integrity mechanism mandating that drivers are properly signed with digital signatures in order for them to be loaded, which was introduced for all versions of Windows starting from Vista 64 -bit. The technique used to bypass it was seen in use by other threat actors like Turla, Lamberts and Equation.

Moriya’s user mode agent bypasses such protection with the use of an open-source code[ 1 ] named DSEFIX v1. 0. The user agent dumps an embedded VBoxDrv.sys image of version 1.6.2 to disk and loads it, which is then used by the aforementioned code to map Moriya’s unsigned motorist to kernel remembrance space and execute it from its entry level. These actions are made possible through IOCTLs implemented in VBoxDrv.sys that allow writing to kernel address space and executing code from it. Throughout this process, the bypass code is used to locate and modify a flag in kernel space named g_CiOptions, which controls the mode of enforcement.

After the unsigned driver is loaded, the agent registers a special keyword that is used as a magical value, which will be sought in the first bytes of every incoming packet pass away the covert channel. This allows the rootkit to filter celebrated packets and block them for any application on information systems other than the user mode agent. The enrollment of the value is done through a special IOCTL with the code 0x222004 sent to the driver, where a typical magic string is pass1 2.

Fig. 3. Registration of the packet magic value utilizing a designated IOCTL

Except for its covert channel communication feature, Moriya is capable of establishing a overrule shell session using an overt channel. For this purpose, it waits for a special packet that consists of a message with the structure connect . The address and port are parsed and used by the agent to start a new connection to the devoted server, while creating a new cmd.exe process and redirecting its I/ O to the connection’s socket. The manages for the newly created process and its main thread are destroyed to avoid detection.

In any other case, the agent attempts to read the incoming TCP payload from the driver, which will be retrieved as soon as a designated packet with a magic number and shell command is received. An endeavor is made to read the data with a plain ReadFile API function as a blocking operation, i.e ., reading is accomplished only once the buffer in kernel mode is populated with data from a Moriya-related packet.

Upon an incoming packet event, the agent makes a new cmd.exe process and redirects its I/ O employing named pipes. One tube is used to read the retrieved shell command from the covert channel and the other is used to write the shell’s output( obtained from the stdout and stderr flows) back to it after executing. To write any data back, the agent uses the WriteFile API function with the driver’s handle.

All traffic passed on the channel is encoded with a simple encryption scheme. Every sent byte has its payload, following the magic string, XORed with the value 0x05 and then negated. Following the same logic, to decode the incoming traffic’s warhead, every byte of it should be first disproved and then XORed with 0x05.

Fig. 4. Code used for packet encoding

Kernel mode driver analysis

The Moriya rootkit’s driver component induces apply of the Windows Filtering Platform( WFP) to facilitate the covert channel between the compromised host and the C& C server. WFP offer a kernel space API that allows driver code to intercept packets in transit and intervene in their processing by the Windows TCP/ IP network stack. This makes it possible to write a driver that can filter out distinct packet rivers, based on developer-chosen criteria, and designate them for intake by a specific user mode application, as is the case in Moriya.

The driver retrieves the distinct Moriya-related traffic applying a filtering engine. This is the kernel mode mechanism used to inspect traffic according to sectionarticle that can be applied on various fields across several layers of a packet( namely data link, IP and transport ), making it possible to handle matching packets with unique handlers. Such handlers are referred to as callout functions.

In the case of Moriya, the filtering engine is configured to intercept TCP packets, sent over IPv4 from a remote address. Each packet with these criteria will be inspected by a callout function that checks if its first six bytes correspond to the previously registered sorcery value, and if so, facsimiles the packet contents into a special buffer that can be later read by the user mode agent. The matching packet will then be blocked in order to hide its existence from the system, while any other packet is permitted to be processed as intended by the network stack.

To allow the crafting of a response back to the server, the callout part saves a special value in a global variable that specifies the received TCP stream. This value is called a flowHandle, and is taken from the packet’s corresponding FWPS_INCOMING_METADATA_VALUES0 struct. When the user issues a response to the server via the motorist, the latter would craft a new packet employing the FwpsAllocateNetBufferAndNetBufferList0 function and insert the response data and target server based on the saved flowHandle to it, employing the part FwpsStreamInjectAsync0.

Fig. 5. Code that creates a new packet, designates it for the flow of the corresponding incoming TCP packet and injects data written from user space into it

As formerly mentioned, the motorist registers several roles that are exposed to the user mode agent in order to interact with it 😛 TAGEND

IRP_MJ_READ: used to allow the user mode agent to read their own bodies of a Moriya TCP packet from a special buffer to which it is facsimile upon receipt. The function itself waits on an event that gets signaled once such a packet is secured, thus turning the ReadFile function called by the user mode agent into a blocking operation that will wait until the packet is picked up by the driver. IRP_MJ_WRITE: injects user-crafted data into a newly created TCP packet that is sent as a response to an incoming Moriya packet from the server. IRP_MJ_DEVICE_CONTROL: used to register the keyword to check the beginning of every incoming TCP packet in order to identify Moriya-related traffic. The passed sorcery is anticipated to be six characters long.

Fig. 6. Code used for registering the packet sorcery value from the motorist side

How were targeted servers initially infected?

Inspecting the systems targeted by the rootkit, we tried to understand how they got infected in the first place. As previously mentioned, Moriya was realise deployed mostly on public-facing servers within the victim organisations. In one case, we read the attacker infect an organizational mail server with the China Chopper webshell, utilizing it to map the victim’s

network and then deploy other tools in it. Moriya’s user mode agent was explicitly installed utilizing a command line executed on the targeted server this lane. This command and examples of others run on the victim machine via the webshell can be seen below.

“cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& ipconfig -all “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\WDigest “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \&$ public \ acmsetup.exe “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& query customer “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& ipconfig/ all “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& ping “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& netstat -anp tcp “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& tasklist/ v “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& whoami “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& cd$ windir \ web “cmd”/ c cd/ d$ windir \ Web \& rundll3 2 MoriyaServiceX6 4. dll, Install “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& ipconfig/ all “cmd”/ c cd/ d C :\ inetpub \ wwwroot \& hour/ t …

In general, we assess that the group’s modus-operandi involves infiltrating organizations

through vulnerable web servers in their networks. For example, an older variant of Moriya named IISSpy( described below) targets IIS web servers. Our telemetry shows that it was likely deployed by exploiting CVE-2 017 -7 269 to let the attackers gain an initial foothold on a server prior to running the malware.

Post exploitation toolset

During our investigation we procured a target in South Asia that enabled us to get a glimpse into some of the other tools that we assess were in use by the same attacker. The toolset includes programs used to scan hosts in the local network, find new targets, perform lateral movement to spread to them and exfiltrate files. While most of the tools seem custom made and tailored for the attackers’ activities, we could also observe some open-source malware frequently leveraged by Chinese-speaking actors. Following is an outline of these tools based on their purpose in the infection chain.

Network Discovery: custom constructed programs used to scan the internal network and detect vulnerable services.

HTTP scanner: command-line tool, found under the name’ 8. tmp ‘, which detects web servers through banner grabbing. This is done by issuing a malformed HTTP packet to a given address, where no headers are included and the request is succeeded with multiple null bytes.

Fig. 7. Malformed packet generated by HTTP scanner

If the server answers, the output will be displayed in the console, as shown below.

Fig. 8. Console output with a server response displayed upon breakthrough of a new server in the network

DCOM Scanner: another command-line utility that attempts to connect to a remote host on TCP port 135( RPC ), and use the DCOM IOxidResolver interface to resolve addresses assigned to all network interfaces available on the remote system.

Fig. 9. Output of the DCOM scanner utility

Lateral Movement: tools used to spread to other hosts in specific targeted networks.

BOUNCER: malware that was first described by Mandiant in their 2013 [ 2 ] report on APT1. This tool is another passive backdoor that got to wait for incoming connections on a specific port and furnishes different features, as are indicated below, that can be used to control a remote host and facilitate lateral motion from it. 0x01: Proxy Init Connection

0x02: Proxy Send Packet

0x03: Proxy Close Connection

0x07: Execute Shellcode

0x0A: Kill Bot

0x0C: Reverse Shell CMD

0x0D: Delete File

0x0E: Execute local program

0x0F: Enumerate Servers In Domain and save output in gw.dat

0x10: Enumerate SQL Servers and save output in sql.dat

0x12: Reverse Shell CreateProcess

0x16: Upload File – Write Data

0x17: Download File – Finish

0x1E: Download File – Start

0x1F: Upload File – Start

0x2D: Enumerate Servers

0x2E: Enumerate SQL Server

0x2F: Enumerate Servers Verbose

0x30: Enumerate Users

0x32: Do nothing The BOUNCER sample that we find contained a string that indicates which command-line arguments it foresees: usage:%s IP port[ proxip][ port][ key] However, the backdoor is configured to accept simply the port number on which it will listen.

We determined two versions of this backdoor, put forward by the two different launchers. The first one is an executable file named nw.tmp that decrypts an embedded payload utilizing the RC4 algorithm and injects it into a freshly spawned svchost.exe process. The injected payload is reminiscent of one described by Mandiant in 2013, which is yet another intermediate loader that decrypts and loadings an embedded BOUNCER DLL. The last stage is started by invoking the DLL’s dump export with the arguments passed via the command line.

The other version was stored with the epithet rasauto.dll in the system directory, impersonating the Windows Remote Access Auto Connection Manager library. Like the other version, it decrypts an embedded DLL using RC4, but this time utilizes no intermediate stage, instead directly calling the DLL’s dump export without statements. The decrypted library is a slightly modified BOUNCER variant that ever listens on the hardcoded port 1437.

Fig. 10. Code from the second BOUNCER variant that uses the hardcoded port 1437 to listen for new packets

Based on compilation timestamps of all BOUNCER-related executables, as shown below, we assess that the attacker reused old samples of the malware rather than compiled new different versions of it 😛 TAGENDnw.tmp- stage 0 – launcher – 08 -0 3-2017 03:56: 24

nw.tmp- stage 1 – embedded loader – 26 -0 8-2014 04:49: 58

nw.tmp- stage 2 – embedded BOUNCER backdoor – 28 -0 5-2012 13:44: 37

rasauto.dll – stage 0- loader 26 -0 8-2013 09:37: 08

rasauto.dll – stage 1 – embedded BOUNCER backdoor – 26 -0 8-2013 09:36: 27

Custom PSExec: the attacker deployed a tool to execute commands remotely on compromised machines. Like the original PSExec tool, this one consists of two components- a patron named tmp and a service named pv.tmp. In ordering to use the tool, the attacker has to execute it via a command line with the parameters specified below.

Usage: psexec psserve_path exefilename ServerName[ option ]\ n

The service ingredient is a tiny program that uses the CreateProcessA API to start a program specified as an arguing. The patron component uses the Service Control Manager( SCM) API to create a service on the target machine. If the ServerName argument is not specified, the service will be named Server% c% c where% c is a random lower instance character. The exefilename contention is then passed to the StartServiceA function in order to initiate the command execution.

Fig. 11. Code used to create and start the service on targeted host

It is worth noting that the program has some limitations. Compared with the original PSExec, it is not able to copy the service binary( i.e ., pv.tmp, which has its path specified in the psserve_path argument) to a remote machine, but rather assumes it is already present on it. Besides, it cannot handle network credentials, limiting the ability to execute commands as other users , nor does it support tubes, which means it does not receive the output of the commands it issues.

Exfiltration: multi-platform utilities commonly used to establish connections with remote hosts and conduct file system runnings on them, including file upload and download.

Earthworm and Termite: well-known command-line utilities developed to facilitate intrusion into intranet networks. These programs are multiplatform and can be deployed on various architectures. Earthworm is used to create passageways between compromised hosts and transfer data.

Fig. 12. Earthworm help message

Termite furnishes additional features to download and upload files between the compromised hosts, as well as a route to spawn a remote shell to control the targeted machine.

Fig. 13. Termite help message

TRAN: another tool that we detected under the filename tmp that was used to transfer data between compromised hosts. The binary we saw operated as a loader that exemplifies a tiny web server encrypted with the RC4 algorithm within it. This server is later injected into a newly created legitimate schtask.exe process and usually listens on port 49158. It is used for managing files uploaded by the attacker into an in-memory virtual file system maintained by the malware.By default the file system includes a tiny program named client.exe, which can be downloaded by any host use a standard HTTP GET request to the path/ client.exe. This file is a command-line utility that can be used to control the virtual file system managed by the server, through one of several available commands are indicated below.

Fig. 14. Client.exe aid message

IISSpy: retracing Moriya back to a user-mode rootkit

IISSpy is an older user-mode version of the Moriya rootkit that we can really pinpoint in our telemetry. It is used to target IIS servers for establishing a backdoor in their underlying websites. It was detected on a machine in 2018, unrelated to any of the attacks in the current operation. This proposes the threat actor has been effective since at least that year.

The malware, which comes as a DLL, achieves its goals by enumerating operating IIS processes on the server( i.e ., those that are executed from the image w3wp. exe ), and injecting the malware’s DLL into them to alter their behavior. The executed code in the IIS processes will then set inline hookings for several roles, most notably CreateFileW.

The corresponding CreateFileW hook function checks if the filename argument contains the directory ‘\ MORIYA \’ or ‘\ moriya \’ in its track, and if so, infers that the attacker has sent a specially crafted HTTP request to the web server. In this request, the Moriya path in the URL is followed by an encoded command. After the command is decoded and processed, it is passed via a mailslot (\\.\ mailslot \ slot) to a separate thread, while signaling an event called Global \ CommandEvent.

Fig. 15. Code of the CreateFileW hook function that looks for the’ MORIYA’ \’ moriya’ directory in a request path

Should the currently managed file contain the Moriya path, the very same hook function will generate a special file on the web server to which command execution output will be written. This file’s path is created by finding the position of the ‘\ MORIYA \’ or ‘\ moriya \’ strings in the inspected filename contention, and replacing it with the string ‘\ IISINFO.HTM ‘. This will then be appended to the command data passed on the mailslot, following a’>’ character.

The other weave waiting on the command event mentioned above is in charge of processing attacker data retrieved from the mailslot. Any such command will be read and parsed to find the’>’ character and the file route that follows it, in such cases the one corresponding to’ IISINFO.HTML’. After executing the command via cmd.exe, the output will be written to the file in this path, allowing the attacker to read it by issuing a corresponding HTTP request where the URL path leads to this file on the server.

Other functions that are hooked in the IIS process are CreateProcessAsUserW and CreateProcessW. These are used to detect if the current process spawns a new server instance, which will in turn be injected with the malware’s DLL. Apart from this, IISSpy will also create a monitoring thread that will sporadically look for newly created httpd.exe procedures, corresponding to the Apache server. If detected, the malware will be injected to them as well.

Although it is evident from both the functionality and use of the Moriya keyword by the malware that IISSpy and the Moriya rootkit are related, further proof in the code substantiates the connection 😛 TAGEND

The older variant is capable of creating a reverse shell transmitted through an overt channel in exactly the same way as the more recent version of the malware, i.e ., it recognizes a connect request be accompanied by a C& C server address and port, connects to it and redirects the IO of a new exe process to the underlying socket. Both variants use the same packet encoding and decoding algorithm, whereby each clear-text byte is XORed with 0x5 and negated, and vice-versa.

Fig. 16. Packet decoding loop that follows the same logic as that used in Moriya

In both cases the developers left a trail of unique debug messages, issued to the OutputDebugString API function. An example of such a string used in identical code in the two variants is shown below.

Fig. 17. Code used in both variants to spawn a new shell, while printing unique debug messages

Both implants are deployed by invoking an export function named Install that creates a service that allows persistent execution, with the malware’s logic residing in the ServiceMain Moreover, the Install functions are highly similar to one another.

Fig. 18. Comparison of Install export function CFGs between IISSpy and Moriya

The ProcessKiller rootkit vs. security products

Another interesting artefact found in our telemetry that could be tied to the developers of Moriya is a malware named ProcessKiller. As its epithet suggests, it is intended to eliminate execution of processes, with the purpose of applying a kernel mode driver. Ultimately, this tool is used to shut down and block initiation of AV processes from kernel space, thus permitting other onslaught tools to run without being detected.

This malware operates through the following stages 😛 TAGEND

An attacker calls the malware’s DLL from an export named Kill, passing it a listing of process names it would like to shut down and block as a command-line argument. The malware writes a motorist that is embedded as water resources within it, impersonating a Kaspersky motorist for the purposes of the track% System %\ drivers \ kavp.sys. There is an attempt to load the motorist use the Service Control Manager. However, because it is not signed and loading is prone to fail on Windows versions above Vista 64 -bit, the malware uses the same DSEFix code to bypass Digital Signature Enforcement as witnessed in Moriya’s user mode agent. The malware parses the process names passed as statements and makes a vector of’ blacklisted process’ out of them. For each process in the listing, the malware sees its PID and issues it through an IOCTL with code 0x22200C to the driver which is in charge of shutting it down from kernel space. The shutdown is carried out by locating the process object with the role PsLookupProcessByProcessId and then terminating it with ZwTerminateProcess. The list of process is then passed via another IOCTL with the code 0x222004 to the driver, which inserts each member of it to a linked listing in kernel space. When the motorist is bootstrapped, it registers a callback for newly created processes through the PsSetCreateProcessNotifyRoutineEx function, which inspects the image name of the generated process and compares it against those found in the linked list. If a match is determined, the process creation status in the PPS_CREATE_NOTIFY_INFO structure will be set to STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL, signaling the user space API function that process creation failed. At this degree any other malware can theoretically operate without being saw. If the attacker would like to see disable blacklisting, it can be done by issuing an IOCTL with the code 0x222008, which would destroy the linked list of blacklisted procedures.

Once again, the connection to Moriya is based on several observations 😛 TAGEND

Distinct debug fault messages, as the one presented below.

Fig. 19. Unique debug message that appears in ProcessKiller and Moriya

Filename of the same structure, i.e ., Moriya’s agent is internally named’ MoriyaServiceX6 4. dll ‘, and ProcessKiller’s DLL is named’ ProcessKillerX6 4. dll’ Usage of the exact same DSEFix code to load an unsigned driver.

What do we know about the threat actor?

Unfortunately, we are not able to attribute the attack to any particular known actor, but based on the TTPs used throughout the campaign, we suppose it is a Chinese-speaking one. We base this on the fact that the targeted entities were attacked in the past by Chinese-speaking performers, and are generally located in countries that are usually targeted by such an actor profile. Moreover, the tools leveraged by the attackers, such as China Chopper, BOUNCER, Termite and Earthworm, are an additional indicator supporting our hypothesis as they have previously been used in campaigns attributed to well-known Chinese-speaking groups.

Who were the specific objectives?

Based on our telemetry the attacks were highly targeted and delivered to less than 10 victims around the world. The more prominent victims are two large regional diplomatic organizations in South-East Asia and Africa, while all the others were victims in South Asia.


The TunnelSnake campaign demonstrates the program activities of a sophisticated actor that invests significant resources in designing an evasive toolset and infiltrating networks of high-profile organizations. By leveraging Windows drivers, covert communications channels and proprietary malware, the group behind it maintains a considerable level of stealth. That said, some of its TTPs, like the usage of a merchandise webshell and open-source legacy code for loading unsigned motorists, may get detected and in fact were flagged by our product, committing us visibility into the group’s operation.

Still, with activity dating back to at least 2018, the threat actor behind this campaign has shown that it is able to evolve and tailor its toolset to target environments. This indicates the group conducting these attacks may well still be active and retooling for additional operations in the area of interest outlined in this publication, as well as other regions. With that in mind, we continue to track this attacker and look for signs of its reappearance in the wild. Any findings and updates will be made available to patrons of our Threat Intelligence Portal.

For more information about operation TunnelSnake and the underlying threat actor, contact us at: intelreports @kaspersky. com. To learn more on overrule engineering and malware analysis from Kaspersky GReAT experts, check out the website http ://

IOCs 48307C22A930A2215F7601C78240A5EE Moriya Agent

A2C 4EE84E3A95C8731CA795F53F900D5 Moriya 64 -bit Driver

5F0F1B0A033587DBCD955EDB1CDC24A4 IISSpy C1 159 FE3193E8B5206006B4C9AFBFE62 ProcessKiller DA6 27 AFEE0 96 CDE0B 680 D39BD5081C41 ProcessKiller Driver- 32 -bit

07CF58ABD6CE92D96CFC5ABC5F6CBC9A ProcessKiller Driver- 64 -bit

9A8F39EBCC580AA56D6DDAF5804EAE61 pv.tmp( Custom PSExec Server)

39C361ABB74F9A338EA42A083E6C7DF8 pc.tmp( Custom PsExec Client)

DE3FB 65461 EE8A68A3C7D490CDAC296D tran.tmp( Exfiltration tool)

EAC0E 57 A22936D4C777AA121F799FEE6 client.exe( Utility embedded in tran.tmp)

D7 45174 F5B0EB41D9F764B22A5ECD357 rasauto.dll( Bouncer Loader)

595E43CDF0EDCAA31525D7AAD87B7BE4 8.tmp( HTTP) Scanner

9D75B50727A8E732DB0ADE7E270A7395 ep.tmp DCOM Scanner

3A4E1F3F7E1BAAB8B02F3A8EE20F98C9 nw.tmp Bouncer Loader

47F2D06713DAD556F535E523B777C682 Termite 45A5D9053BC90ED657FA90DE0B775E8F Earthworm

[ 1 ] Today a copy of the original code are available for consultation here: http :// www.m5home. com/ bbs/ thread-8 043 -1- 1. html

[ 2 ] https :// content/ dam/ fireeye-www/ services/ pdfs/ mandiant-apt1-report. pdf

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